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TWO TENDENCIES IN THE NATIONAL QUESTION
The very content that gives rise to two tendencies in national question comes into being as a result of the development of capitalism into monopoly capitalism. A capitalist world market and a worldwide economic system is formed.
First tendency: This economic development gives rise to the economic tendency of unity of nations, unity of peoples.
This tendency express itself in two antagonistic political forms.
One is the form it assumes under the bourgeois rule. It is imperialism, oppression of other nations, inequality of nations, wars between nations and wars amongst “big powers” for the domination of other nations. Forced unity of nations.
The other form is assumed under the rule of the proletariat. It is internationalism, equality of nations, co-operation of nations, unity of nations and support of the most developed to the less developed nations. Voluntary unity of nations.
Second tendency: To the extent that this economic development gives rise to the economic tendency of unity of nations, unity of peoples and this gives rise to a forced unity, to inequality of nations under bourgeois conditions, under bourgeois rule, the tendency to separate from this imperialist, forced unity arises.
This tendency to separation express itself in two antagonistic political forms.
One is the form it assumes under bourgeois rule. As such, it calls for the separation of the nation from the forced unity of imperialism to achieve equality of nations and as such, and since it brakes the imperialist unity and weakens it, and so long as it does so, it is progressive. It also calls for the separation of the nation from the voluntary unity of internationalism, and as such it is reactionary. But faced with the very content of economic developments that unites the nations forcefully or voluntarily, which impose itself on all, this bourgeois form within which equality of nations supposed to express itself through separation of nations faces defeat. On the one hand it leads to its own imperialism and on the other it surrenders itself to the bigger imperialist power “voluntarily”. If this voluntary surrender is problematic, force an many forms is used to achieve this imperial unity.
The other form is assumed under the rule of the proletariat. This is the united front of all oppressed nations with the world proletarian-communist- movement against imperialism. As such, it calls for the voluntary co-operation of nations, voluntary unity of nations and thus achieve the equality of all nations through co-operation of all nations and defend it against imperialism of the local and foreign bourgeoisie through this unity.
Two tendencies and proletarian internationalism
Ever since the industrial bourgeoisie came into being, the competition amongst the bourgeoisie has always played a role in the political instability of bourgeois nations. Development of capitalism in to monopoly capitalism did not resolve this problem of the bourgeoisie, it only turned it in to competition amongst monopolist bourgeois.
Ever since the industrial bourgeoisie came in to being, the competition amongst the bourgeoisies of different nations have played a role in the relations of bourgeois nations. Development of capitalism in to monopoly capitalism did not resolve this problem of competition amongst the different nationalities of the bourgeoisie, it only turned it in to competition amongst monopolist bourgeois in the world-in to imperialism.
Leaving aside the internal problems of the bourgeoisie, this problem of relations amongst bourgeois nations, its inherent tendency to wars and inequality amongst the nations is thus a bourgeois problem-one of the bourgeois problems that has not been resolved by the bourgeoisie. That is why at its beginning its resolution even by the proletariat is a resolution of a bourgeois problem. Only after the unity of nations in and around socialist states are achieved does the equality of nations become a problem of socialist equality.
Proletariat, communism has no bourgeois equality problems amongst the nations that denies their right to organise as a state for it organises relations amongst the nations based on co-operation and support to one another, and thus to achieving not just political equality but also economics and cultural equality amongst the nations through co-operation, support of the strong to the weak, and thus to getting rid of the national differences and antagonisms amongst the nations. Such was the national policy of proletariat that is proletarian internationalism, in the days of Karl Marx, before imperialism, such was the policy of Lenin and Stalin after October 1917! It is thus that the national policy of the communist ruled countries and the relationship amongst such countries (be they socialist or be pre-socialist) is a policy of equality of nations and the closest co-operation of nations, of nations that work together and support one another! This is a co-operation of nations that do not have bourgeoisie in its ranks or is organised in a way that it aims to get rid of the bourgeoisie as a class.
The national policy of such countries in their relation with bourgeois nations is peaceful co-existence with them, thus policy of peace, prohibition of aggression and none interference, thus sovereignty of all nations and countries and yet and at the same time preparation against wars of bourgeois nations against other countries including communist ruled countries for war against other nations-countries is one of the actual tendencies of all bourgeois nations, a tendency that became ever so strong with imperialism!
These nations also calls upon all nations who are ruled by the bourgeoisie for their unity with them against imperialism and its barbarity and inevitably gain their support to join the great movement of humanity, of nations to rid the bourgeoisie from its rank and to unit.
The two tendencies in national question explained by Stalin refers to the period after October revolution, and thus refers to concert solution of this problem by the proletariat, by communism, which has already came into being.
Ever since modern industrial proletariat came into being, but particularly since the above mentioned two tendencies imposed themselves on all, equality amongst nations cannot be separated from co-operation amongst nations ruled by communism. This is the proletarian internationalism. Separation of these two, equality of nations and closest of co-operations amongst nations is the policy of the bourgeoisie in the ranks of communists!
Ever since October revolution the world has witnessed the concrete example of the application of this policy by communism. First in the USSR, amongst the nations and nationalities that came together in the USSR whereby they were equal nations supporting each other, and later in the relations amongst the nations of Soviet USSR and People’s Democracies of Europe and Asia. It is here, in the world of communism that nations were equal and supporting one another, and the biggest and strongest supporter of all these nations was the USSR, and the Russians in the USSR! Ever since USSR and the coming into being of People’s Democracies, proletarian internationalism is not just a theory, a strategy, but a concrete realty and nothing can change this fact! It lit the dark world of nations and will light the present barbarity of nations creating the conditions for equality and co-operation of nations! Proletarian internationalism has been victorious, and will be victorious again!
Proletarian internationalism is the theory and practice of independence of nations, their equality, based on their co-operation and support to one another, where the stronger and more developed nations help the weak and less developed, leading to all-round development of all nations!
There have always been nationalist deviations in our parties and states, but these were exposed and defeated. The first victorious nationalism in a proletarian state is that of Tito’s Yugoslavia!
Tito and gang, these enemies of proletarian internationalism, these bourgeois nationalists, and these spies of imperialism has begun their nationalism by opposing the close co-operation of USSR and People’s Democracies. Thus separating the equality and independence of nations from their close co-operation, and from the necessity of USSR as the strongest and most developed to help all others. To achieve this aim they have come up, amongst others, with the theory of USSR being an imperialist oppressor of other nations (and CPSU as an imposer of its views on other parties) and People’s democracies as countries that are oppressed by USSR and accept this oppression (and the parties in People’s Democracies as obedient stooges of CPSU). They have declared themselves to be independent of CPSU and USSR, and of course USA and other imperial powers. They have declared this policy as the only and correct policy of having independence and equality for Yugoslavia and the Yugoslav party, and demanded that this be the policy of all.
The fact that this is nothing but nationalism and a fight against proletarian internationalism is easy to see. What has also become clear was that such a policy invariably leads to, if not based on it, to subservience to imperialism. Yugoslavia has become a stooge of USA and world imperialism, and the fact that the Tito and gang were spies of USA imperialism and their undermining work in the People’s Democracies at the service of USA imperialism has also been exposed!
Separation of equality of nations, independence of countries and nations from their close co-operation is the nationalism of those who pretend to proletarian internationalism, to communism!
This policy of destroying proletarian internationalism and subservience to imperialism of Tito and gang, in the form of “non-aligned movement” draws in other bourgeois nations and with the development of Titoism in the CPSU and other Communist Parties it also draws in the so-called socialist but in reality nationalist states into its rank thus becoming their openly declared and applied policy. This policy becomes an openly declared policy of the CPSU in the “Brejniev Program” of 1985!