WELCOME TO DIRECT DEMOCRACY (COMMUNIST PARTY) WEB-SITE.
1- UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS!
2- SOME OF THE VIEWS EXPRESSED BY THE REPRESENTATIVES OF SOCIALIST STATES, THAT IS COMMUNISTS, DURING THE DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THE DECLARATION.
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.
2- SOME OF THE VIEWS EXPRESSED BY THE REPRESENTATIVES OF SOCIALIST STATES THAT IS COMMUNISTS, DURING THE DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THE DECLARATION.
The below views are directly from the UN documents on the discussion about UDHR:
the Declaration should not entail any interference in the domestic jurisdiction of sovereign States.
three conditions indispensable to the completion of the Declaration, namely:
4.1: a guarantee of basic freedoms for all, with due regard to the national sovereignty of States;
4.2: a guarantee that human rights could be exercised with due regard to the particular economic, social and national circumstances prevailing in each country;
4.3: and a definition of the duties of citizens to their country, their people and their State.
fascism was nowhere condemned in the draft.
The Declaration stated only traditional freedoms and rights of the old liberal school,
It failed to mention that the counterpart of those rights was the duty of the individual towards his neighbours, his family, his group and his nation.
It completely ignored the right of every person to speak his own language and to have the protection of his national culture ensured.
the Declaration, in reality, represented a step backward if compared with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, which had been produced during the French Revolution; if compared with the Communist Manifesto, which had declared human rights as binding and necessary a hundred years ago; and if compared with the principles which had inspired the October Revolution.
These were all rejected by individual roll-call votes. ( all should be able to guess by what states? ZG)
UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS: AMENDMENTS TO THE DRAFT DECLARATION PROPOSED TO THE THIRD COMMITTEE (A/777)
Below are the amendments proposed by the delegation of USSR to the UDHR:
I. Substitute the following new article for article 3: (SHOULD BE NO: 2 IN THE FINAL DECLARATION ABOVE. MN)
"1. Every people and every nation has the right to national self-determination. States responsible for the administration of non-self-governing territories, including colonies, shall facilitate the implementation of this right, guided by the principles and purposes of the United Nations in regard to the peoples of such territories.
"2. Every people and every nationality within a State shall enjoy equal rights. State laws shall not permit any discrimination whatsoever in this regard. National minorities shall be guaranteed the right to use their native language, and to possess their own national schools, libraries, museums and other cultural and educational institutions.
"3. The human and civic rights and fundamental freedoms set out in the present Declaration shall be extended to the population of non-self-governing territories, including colonies."
II. Substitute the following text for article 20: (SHOULD BE NO: 19 IN THE FINAL DECLARATION ABOVE. MN)
"It is the inalienable right of every person freely to express and disseminate democratic views and ideas, to defend democratic systems and democratic state and social institutions, and to combat fascism in the spheres of ideology, politics and state and public life."
III. Substitute the following text for Article 22: (SHOULD BE NO: 21 IN THE FINAL DECLARATION ABOVE. MN)
"1. Every citizen of any State, without distinction as to race, colour, nationality, birth, property status, social origin, language, religion, or sex, shall have the right to participate in the government of his country, and the right to elect and be elected to all organs of authority on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot, and shall have the right, equally with other citizens, of access to any state or public office in his country.
"2. The establishment of property, educational or other qualifications restricting participation by the citizens of any State in voting at elections to representative organs is incompatible with the present Declaration."
IV. Insert the following new article after Article 30:
"The human and civic rights and fundamental freedoms enumerated in the present Declaration shall be guaranteed by national laws. Any violation or limitation of these rights, whether direct or indirect, shall be deemed to violate the present Declaration and to be incompatible with the high principles proclaimed in the United Nations Charter."
(DOCUMENT A/784; 8 December 1948; Original: Russian.)
These were all rejected by individual roll-call votes - all should be able to guess by what states!
The President then put to vote a United Kingdom amendment (A/778/Rev.1 ) to delete the additional article of the draft Declaration (referred to as article 3), which declared that the rights proclaimed in the Declaration would also apply to any person belonging to the population of Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories, and in its place to substitute the following text as an additional paragraph of the second article, regarding the application of the Declaration:.
"Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, Trust, Non-Self-Governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty."
The representative of the United Kingdom explained that article 2 of the draft Declaration laid down that every individual was entitled to the rights and freedoms proclaimed in the Declaration, without distinction of any kind. He argued that, if article 2 had any meaning and if its terms were sufficiently precise and enumerated sufficiently dearly the distinctions to be outlawed,
there was no reason to add an additional article (article 3) stipulating that those rights applied to the inhabitants of the Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories.
The United Kingdom amendment was adopted by 29 votes to 17, with 10 abstentions.